Automation in passenger cars is constantly increasing. Many automated functions have been developed for enhancing safety and efficiency of driving in the past.

Nevertheless, humans will remain part of the system for a long time due to several reasons.

First of all, automation cannot cope with highly complex traffic situations.

The situation understanding and prediction capabilities of vehicles are far less sophisticated than the capabilities of human drivers.

Secondly, even in situations where highly automated driving is possible, the human driver might prefer to drive manually.


Thirdly, for a substantial period of time there will be a mixture of cars with varying degrees of automation on the road and drivers of less automated vehicles need to interact with automated vehicles.

As a consequence, the success of future more complex and more automated vehicles will depend on how well they interact, communicate and cooperate with humans both inside and outside the vehicle.